David the Saint , 10841153 (aged 69 years)

David "the Saint" //
Given names
David "the Saint"
Name prefix
Name suffix
of Scotland
the Saint
Birth 1084 52 39

MarriageMatilda Maud of HuntingdonView this family

Death of a fatherMalcolm III
November 13, 1093 (aged 9 years)
Death of a motherMargaret of Wessex
November 16, 1093 (aged 9 years)
Birth of a sonHenry
1114 (aged 30 years)

Death of a sisterEadgyth Matilda of Scotland
May 1, 1118 (aged 34 years)
Death of a wifeMatilda Maud of Huntingdon
April 23, 1130 (aged 46 years)

Marriage of a childHenry Adelaide de WarenneView this family
1139 (aged 55 years)
Death of a sonHenry
June 12, 1152 (aged 68 years)

Death May 24, 1153 (aged 69 years)
Family with parents
Birth: March 26, 1031 30Scone Abbey, Atholl, Perthshire, Scotland
Death: November 13, 1093Alnwick Castle, Northumbria, England
Birth: 1045 29 20Hungary
Death: November 16, 1093Edinburgh Castle, Edinburgh, Scotland
Marriage Marriage1068
17 years
Birth: 1084 52 39
Death: May 24, 1153Carlisle, Cumberland, England
-5 years
elder sister
Birth: June 1, 1079 48 34Fife, Scotland
Death: May 1, 1118Westminster Palace, London, England
Family with Matilda Maud of Huntingdon
Birth: 1084 52 39
Death: May 24, 1153Carlisle, Cumberland, England
Marriage Marriage
Simon de St. Liz + Matilda Maud of Huntingdon
partner’s partner
Marriage Marriage
Birth: about 1096 36 24Huntingdon, Huntingdonshire, England
Death: 1163Long Buckby, Northamptonshire, England
Shared note

When his brother, Alexander, died without a legitimate heir, David became King of Scotland. David was the most vigorous and original of the brothers. He was Earl of Cumbria in his own right, Earl of Northampton and Huntingdon by his marriage to a rich Norman heiress. In fact this Scottish prince, Henry I's brother-in-law, was one of the most prominent barons in England, holding a place of honour in Henry I's court. He was gifted and popular, capable of holding men's loyalty, well equipped for kingship, and like his mother devoted to organize religion and stately services. Because he was a good Norman, hunting was his favorite sport, litigation his hobby, rule by charter an accepted habit. His friends in England were mainly Norman or Breton in origin.

David came to a land where people still lived and worshipped in buildings made of wattle and woodwork, where towns hardly existed, where industry was primitive, where men bartered goods and services because they had no metal currency. The feudal system was hardly known in Scotland as yet, allegiance was given to local chieftains who were reluctant to recognize the claims of higher aughority. Different parts of Scotland were separated from each other by uninhabited hills and moors. There were dialects which were incomprehensible to travellers who went too far afield from home. The influence of the Church was superficial because the organization of parishes, each with its church and its priest, had not yet taken place. There were only three bishoprics for the whole country, and monasteries were few and far between.

David ruled the Scots in Lothian, Albany and Cumbria from 1124 to 1153. In these three decades, permanent changes were effected, so that by the end of the 12th century, Scotland south and east of Norse territory was completely different from the kingdom won by force of arms for Malcolm III in 1058.

In 1135, Henry I, King of England, died. His son had been drowned in the English Channel, and the English throne was now claimed by his daughter Matilda, who had to contend with the rival claim of her cousin Stephen, son of William the Conqueror's daughter, Adele.

For David the affair was very awkward. Henry I had married his sister, Maud, also known as Edith, and Henry's heiress was his niece. Stephen had married another niece, daughter of David's sister Mary. Thus family relationships were much disturbed, and it was diffult to know which side to support.

David invaded England on on behalf of Matilda. His forces captured a number of valuable castles, including Alnwick and Newcastle, but while this was going on, David's son was negotiating with Stephen under his father's instructions, so that the Scottish King had his foot in both camps.

In 1138, David assembled a great army and prepared for an engagement at Cowton Moor in Yorkshire. Robert de Brus and Bernard de Bailleul, both old friends of David and both arrayed on the English side, came out to parley with David for the sake of peace. Moving speeches are recorded, in which the aged Brus pointed out that there were old friends on both sides and that David owed everything to the support of men he now proposed to slaughter. It is said that David wept when he heard Brus speak, but he went on with the fight.

It is known in history as the Battle of the Standard, because the Archbishop of York lashed to a wagon a tall ship's mast, on which was elevated the Sacred Host and the banners of the patron saints.

Though David was defeated in this battle, he got what he wanted. His son's negotiations with Stephen were so successful that Northumbria was ceded as a fief and the Scottish frontier extended south to the Tees. When David died, Scotland was in a stronger position with regard to the state of the Border than ever again.

When David I died in 1153, Ailred of Rievaulx, a Cistercian historian and dear friend of the family wrote: "O desolate Scotia, who shall console thee now? He is no more who made an untilled and barren land a land that is pleasant and plenteous, who adorned thee with castles and cities and lofty towers, enriched thy ports with foreign wares, gathered the wealth of other kingdoms for thine enjoyment, changed thy shaggy cloaks for precious raiment, clothed thine ancient nudity with purple and fine linen, ordered thy barbarous ways with Christian religion." Graeme Ritchie, author of 'The Normans in Scotland', says of this passage that 'for all its rhetoric, it is a singularly exact epitome of David's achievements.'

Ref: "The Story of Scotland" by Janet R. Glover p.43-57

The Highlander reference says that David died 24 May 1158.

Ref: "The Highlander" - May/Jun 1997 - p. 26

Shared note